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Darwin, the capital and chief port of Northern
Territory, on the north-central coast of Australia. The city is on an indentation
of the Timor Sea. Bathurst and Melville islands are north of Darwin and
are separated from the mainland by Clarence Strait. The city is on a low
coastal plain, and the low and little explored plateau of Arnhem Land is
east and southeast of the town. The climate of Darwin is of a hot, tropical,
savanna type, and the average annual temperature is about 82°F. (28°C.)
with only 6°F. to 8°F. (3°C. to 4°C.) difference between
the hottest and coldest months. The average annual precipitation is 59
inches (150 mm); January has 16 inches (41 mm), whereas July has only a
trace of rain. Because of the dry season, tall grass, acacia, and eucalyptus
are the common type of natural vegetation. Sugarcane and tropical products
Darwin is named after the scientist Charles Darwin. The site was discovered in 1839, and was planned as a government cable-station town in 1869. The city never flourished as originally anticipated and in 1938 was described as a "miserable little town of 1,600 people." The port consisted of one old pier and a few sheds, and a small railroad extended about 250 miles (400 km) southeast to Mataran in the interior of North Australia. Darwin became important during World War II when it served as one leg of the British naval defense triangle with its bases at Singapore, Hong Kong, and Darwin. The two major bases fell to Japan late in 1941, thus leaving Darwin vulnerable to attack; and the town was bombed by the Japanese shortly after the fall of Singapore. Australian and U.S. troops rushed to defend the northern coast of Australia. Some naval units were stationed at Darwin, the pier was rebuilt, and oil and gas storage tanks were built, as well as a new airport and military establishments. After the war the bombed areas were rebuilt. On the night of December 24-25, 1974, Darwin was destroyed by a cyclone. All but 10,000 of the city's residents were evacuated after the disaster, but many returned in 1975 as construction of wind-resistant buildings began. Pop. 1991, urban center, 78,139.
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Perth, the capital of Western Australia,
situated on the Swan coastal plain, on the southwestern seaboard of the
continent. The city and its sprawling suburbs lie on undulating sandy ground
on the banks of the Swan River. The administrative and commercial center
is 12 miles (19 km) inland from the port of Fremantle at the river's mouth.
Perth has a Mediterranean type of climate, with long, hot, dry summers
and relatively short, cool, wet winters. The average annual temperature
is 64°F. (17°C.). July, the coldest month, averages 55°F. (12°C.);
February, the hottest, averages 74°F. (23°C.), with frequent temperatures
of over 100°F. (37°C.). Average annual rainfall, most of which
occurs in winter, is 35 inches (900 mm).
The city proper is laid out rectangularly on the north bank of the Swan. At its western end, adjacent to the 1,000-acre (400-hectare) King's Park, are Parliament House and the principal government offices. Beyond King's Park lie the grounds of the University of Western Australia. A highway bridge at the foot of King's Park and a railway bridge and traffic causeway at the eastern edge of the city connect the two banks of the river. The Anglican and Roman Catholic cathedrals, the two town halls, the Supreme Court, Government House, Royal Perth Hospital, and other landmarks are peppered throughout the square mile of the central area. The largest and tallest of the financial and commercial buildings line both sides of the main thoroughfare, St. George's Terrace. Perth also has technical training institutions, a museum, an art gallery, a state library, an observatory, numerous parks and playing fields, and large areas of open river for recreation.
Surrounding the city are residential suburbs, which sprawl west to the coast, east to the foothills of the Darling Range, south to Kwinana, and north into the sparsely populated market gardening area. A number of light industries are located in and around the city, and the principal manufactures are furniture, paint, flour, cement, fertilizers, clothing, paper, and automobiles. There is a large oil refinery and a steel-rolling mill at Kwinana.
Perth is linked by rail with Geraldton on the north; Albany on the south; and, via Kalgoorlie in the eastern goldfields, with the other capital cities, by the Trans-Australian Railway. An international airport links Perth with the outside world. The city has both national and commercial radio and television broadcasting stations.
Perth was founded in 1829, and became a city in 1856. Its growth, slow at first, has paralleled the development of the state's mining and farming areas. Pop. 1991, urban center, 1,030,000; metropolitan area, 1,143,265
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Adelaide, the capital of South Australia
and the fourth largest city in Australia, in the south-central part of
the continent, 425 miles (680 km) northwest of Melbourne. Adelaide is situated
near the southern coastline of South Australia. Its port city, Port Adelaide,
is about 7 miles (11 km) distant on the Gulf of St. Vincent, a large indentation
at the end of the Great Australian Bight. The city of Adelaide is on a
low coastal lowland about 100 feet (30 meters) above sea level. Immediately
east of the city is a low narrow upland known as the Mount Lofty Range,
the southern extension of the Flinders Range. Adelaide has a Mediterranean
type of climate, with short, cool, wet winters and long, hot, dry summers.
The average annual temperature is 63°F. (17°C.); July, the coldest
month, averages 53°F. (12°C.). Freezing weather does occur, but
rarely. The average annual rainfall is 21 inches (530 mm); most of the
rain falls during winter, with June the wettest month.
Farming and grazing are the principal occupations in the surrounding countryside, with sheep as the chief grazing animal. Cattle are also important, and as a consequence dairying is carried on extensively. Large quantities of dairy products, including butter and cheese, are processed in Adelaide, as are beef, mutton, wool, and wool products. The state's uranium, iron ore, gold, and salt are the basis of much of the city's manufacturing. There are machine shops, textile mills, cereal mills, pottery plants, wholesale houses, and railroad yards. The city's products and manufactures are shipped via Port Adelaide.
Adelaide, founded in 1836, was named for the wife of William IV. In 1840 it was incorporated as a city, the first in Australia to be so designated. The city, laid out in the form of a square by its founder, Col. William Light, extends far beyond its original boundaries, but it retains much of its original symmetry. What was formerly the Torrens River has been dammed and made into a lake which lies in the parkland, one mile (1.6 km) wide, between the business section of South Adelaide and the residential quarter of North Adelaide, in which the Anglican Cathedral of St. Peter was erected in 1878. The principal street, King William, runs north and south, intersecting Victoria Square in the center of the city. Surrounding the square are many sites of note, including the Victoria and Albert towers, and the Roman Catholic Cathedral of St. Francis Xavier. North Terrace, another of the city's main thoroughfares, contains additional buildings and sites of interest. Along it are the public library, the South Australian Museum, the national gallery, and the State War Memorial, erected in 1931 to honor the South Australians who died in World War I. At the eastern end of North Terrace are the University of Adelaide, which was founded in 1874, and the Botanic Gardens, which is adjoined by the Zoological Gardens. In Creswell Gardens is located the Sir Ross Smith Memorial, a bronze statue of the South Australian aviator who, with his brother, in 1919 made the first successful flight from England to Australia. In 1905, in Light Square, the city erected a memorial over his grave to the city's founder, Colonel Light. Scattered throughout Adelaide there are statues of many famous people, including Queen Victoria and Robert Burns. In addition to the University of Adelaide, the educational and cultural institutions include the Adelaide Festival Centre, the Elder Conservatorium of Music, the South Australian College of Advanced Education, and the Royal Theatre.
Adelaide's suburbs include Burnside, Beaumont, Goodwood, Hindmarsh, Kensington, Mitcham, Norwood, Plym ton, Prospect, St. Peters, and Unley. Glenelg, Semaphore, and Largs, nearby on the gulf, are popular beach resorts. Pop. 1991, urban center, 960,300.
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Hobart, the capital of Tasmania, Australia,
a deepwater port at the head of the estuary of the Derwent River, 12 miles
(19 km) north of where it flows into Storm Bay and the Pacific Ocean. The
city lies on the west shore of the river. From Mount Wellington (4,165
feet; 1,270 meters), which rises behind Hobart, there are grand vistas
of the mountainous interior and the ocean. The climate is mild and equable,
with a mean temperature ranging from 62°F. (17°C.) in January to
46°F. (8°C.) in July. Annual rainfall is 26 inches (660 mm) and
is evenly distributed.
Australia's second oldest city, Hobart was founded in 1804 and became the seat of government of the separate British colony of Van Diemen's Land (now the state of Tasmania) in 1825. The center of the city was laid out by Governor Lachlan Macquarie in 1811. Surviving landmarks of the early settlement are Anglesea Barracks and the stone warehouses along the waterfront. Hobart had assumed its characteristic aspect before 1850 and has the best examples of early 19th-century colonial architecture in Australia. Of particular interest are the dwellings that form Arthur Circus, the Treasury building, the Theatre Royal, and St. David's Cathedral.
Following cessation of the transportation of convicts in 1853, an economic depression affected the colony, but prosperity returned with the Tasmanian mining boom of the 1880's and Hobart continued to grow. Railroads linked Hobart with the north and northwest coasts of the island. After World War I, construction of hydroelectric power projects in the central highlands led to development of secondary industries and a new phase of the city's life. Growth has been even more rapid since 1945, with expansion of the city to the north and south and, following bridging of the Derwent in 1943, the development of the eastern suburbs across the river. In 1991 the metropolitan area of Hobart had a population of 181,838.
Within Hobart and its vicinity are electrolytic zinc refining works, lumber mills, pulp and paper mills, textile printing plants, breweries, cocoa and chocolate factories, and plants for the manufacture of jam and fruit juice. The city serves as a distribution and shopping center for southern Tasmania. Gross tonnage of vessels entering the port in 1981-1982 was more than 3,000,000.
Hobart has a number of parks, notably the Mountain Reserve on Mount Wellington and the Queen's Domain along the riverfront, which contains Government House and the Botanical Gardens. Outstanding public buildings include the state House of Parliament, the Anglican and Roman Catholic cathedrals, the new buildings of the University of Tasmania, the Tasmanian Museum and Art Gallery, and the modern State Library. The high-level Tasman Bridge spanning the Derwent was opened in 1964. A regatta is held each February, and the annual Sydney-Hobart yacht race takes place in December. In 1967 bush fires in southern Tasmania reached Hobart itself, resulting in heavy loss of life and property.
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Melbourne, the capital of Victoria and, after
Sydney, the principal industrial and financial center of Australia. The
continent's second largest city, Melbourne is located in extreme southeastern
Australia. It lies on both sides of the Yarra River, at the northern end
of Port Phillip Bay, an oyster-shaped sea inlet about 30 miles (48 km)
in diameter. The bay is a deep indentation from the Bass Strait into the
Australian coast. The city is situated on a plain that rises gently to
the low Great Dividing Range, 30 miles (48 km) inland. The southern spurs
of the Australian Alps to the northeast, the heavily wooded slopes of the
divide, and the giant eucalyptus forests of Gippsland to the east provide
recreation areas and an ample water supply for the city. The average annual
temperature is 58°F. (14°C.); July, the coldest month, averages
49°F. (9°C.), while January, the warmest, averages 68°F. (20°C.).
Rainfall is only 26 inches (660 mm) a year but is evenly distributed.
Melbourne is an important trade and manufacturing city, as well as the market center for the state's agricultural products. Early adoption of protective measures by the colony of Victoria gave Melbourne a start over Sydney as a manufacturing center, but the latter gained the lead in the 1890's. Melbourne has remained one of the principal centers for the manufacture of textiles, shoes, and agricultural machinery and is the headquarters of Australia's largest industrial unit, the Broken Hill Proprietary Company. Melbourne's harbor can handle ships with up to a 36-foot (11-meter) draft.
Melbourne was founded in 1835 by John Batman and John P. Fawkner. It was named after Lord Melbourne, then prime minister of England, and was incorporated in 1842. After the discovery of gold at Ballarat in 1851 the population of Melbourne increased enormously and was doubled in the first two decades of the 20th century. Melbourne owed its prosperity to its position as the chief port for the agricultural and gold mining wealth of Victoria. From 1901 until 1927 the Commonwealth Parliament met in Melbourne, and some federal departments are still located in the city.
The city is laid out on a rectangular plan, with wide main streets crossing at right angles, notably Swanston (northsouth) and Collins and Bourke (east-west). Smaller, narrow streets divide the blocks in half from east to west. On the outskirts of Melbourne there are extensive parklands. On the east, the Treasury Gardens fringe the state government buildings, and across the Yarra River to the south are the Botanical Gardens. The city is approached by wide, tree-lined avenues that run north from the bayside suburbs.
Notable buildings include the State Parliament House, which was loaned to the Commonwealth Parliament from 1901 to 1926, when Melbourne was the capital; the Treasury; the Anglican and Roman Catholic cathedrals; the War Memorial; and a stock exchange, completed in 1968. High rise office buildings dominate the financial district at the western end of Collins and Bourke streets. The middle sections of these streets contain the main retail shops.
Melbourne is the seat of three universities -- the University of Melbourne, Monash University, and Latrobe University. The National Gallery of Victoria, the first section of a new Melbourne art center, opened in 1968; it replaced the older National Gallery, one of the world's wealthiest art trusts. Paintings by Tiepolo, Van Eyck, Rembrandt, and Corot are in the collection. The city supports a symphony orchestra. Melbourne is a short distance from the Victorian Alps, and the neighboring beaches, such as St. Kilda, are within half an hour of the city center. The Melbourne Cup, Australia's main horse-racing event, attracts about 150,000 people to the Flemington racecourse each year. Australian football is also very popular; the annual finals attract crowds of more than 100,000. The 1956 summer Olympic Games were held in Melbourne.
The first "down under" trade union was founded in the city in the 1850's. Melbourne was a leading literary center in the 1870's and 1880's, when Marcus Andrew Clarke and Thomas Alexander Browne were leaders of the Melbourne group. The stimulating rivalry between Melbourne and Sydney is a perpetual cause of good-humored argument, but it is undeniable that Melbourne is less cosmopolitan than the capital of New South Wales. Pop. 1991, urban center, 2,822,500; metropolitan area, 3,022,157.
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